Inclusion in education in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia

presentation page of the GEM regional report
This report covers a geographically vast and diverse area, which was welded together into a region with similar education structures and approaches under state socialism in the second half of the 20th century. Access to education was high. However, education systems also used a discriminatory approach, whereby children with disabilities attended special schools, once wrongly regarded as an effective solution, segregated by type of disability, if not fully excluded from education.

Since 1989, the region has been trying to overcome this heavy legacy and shift towards a rights-based approach to education, often with the support of international organizations. Laws and policies have embraced a broader concept of inclusion. Teacher education and professional development programmes are being revised or restructured. Yet progress is uneven. Many changes are happening on paper, while deep-held beliefs and actual practices remain little altered. At the same time, education systems have been grappling with the fallout from political conflict and economic crises that exacerbate inequality and maintain tensions over social issues. Characteristics such as gender, remoteness, poverty, ethnicity, language, migration, displacement, incarceration, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, and religion and other beliefs and attitudes are associated with unequal distribution of education opportunities. Produced by the Global Education Monitoring Report team, in partnership with the European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education and the Network of Education Policy Centers, this report draws on in-depth profiles of 30 education systems in the region. It also presents the additional risks to inclusion now posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Building on the 2020 Global Education Monitoring Report, it documents barriers facing learners, particularly where multiple disadvantages intersect. Its recommendations provide a systematic framework for identifying and dismantling these barriers, according to the principle that ‘every learner matters and matters equally’.

Global Education Monitoring Report Team, European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education, Network of Education Policy Centers
inclusive education systems
Marginalized & Vulnerable group:
All, Indigenous & Minorities, Refugees & Migrants, Socially & Economically excluded groups
System wide approach, Curriculum, Gender inequalities, ICTs, Inclusive Pedagogy & Practices, Language of Instruction, Physical Learning Environment, Educational Staff Professional Development, Violence & Bullying
Level of Education:
Across the education sector, Early Childhood Education, Primary & Secondary, Technical & Vocational Education, Higher Education, Lifelong learning, Non-formal Education
Type of Resources:
International and Regional Instruments, Research & Policy Papers
Asia & the Pacific, Europe & North America
Language of Publication: